All about Blockchain, Cryptocurrency, Digital Transformation

Discussion in 'Off Topic' started by Dr. AMK, Jan 7, 2018.

  1. Dr. AMK

    Dr. AMK Living with Hope

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    Dear @hmscott can you teach me how to use spoilers? I can't PM you.
     
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  2. hmscott

    hmscott Notebook Nobel Laureate

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    It's one of the [token] [/token] forms, replace "token" with "spoiler", advanced, open with spoiler= words spaces no bold or smilies, open and close the declaration with [ ]

    Rather than actual spoilers, I bracket things that are long and drawn out but still part of the whole, I keep interesting catchy parts viewable and the meat / potatoes between spoilers on long articles. I also put NSFNBR stuff with a warning in them too.
     
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  3. Dr. AMK

    Dr. AMK Living with Hope

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    I'll learn from you step by step, thank you for your kindness.
     
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  4. Dr. AMK

    Dr. AMK Living with Hope

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    The Internet Of Things (IOT) Will Be Massive In 2018: Here Are The 4 Predictions From IBM
    With the number of connected devices set to top 11 billion – and that’s not including computers and phones – in 2018, Internet of Things will clearly continue to be a hot topic.
    [​IMG]
    I had the chance to speak to Bret Greenstein, VP of IBM's Watson IoT Consumer Business, who highlighted four key trends. Interestingly three of those trends were around convergence with other distinct yet highly correlated technologies. This underlines the principle that data is the fundamental ingredient of digital transformation. The technologies predicted to make big waves in the coming year – including IoT, artificial intelligence, blockchain and edge – are all methods of collecting, analyzing and storing information.

    1) AI will make the IoT smarter and more productive to work with
    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is undoubtedly the buzzword of the moment – everyone is talking about it but a lot of people still aren’t quite sure what it is. According to Greenstein, however, 2018 is the year that understanding of its role as the brain running IoT systems will spread. As more and more devices become connected and capable of speaking to each other, AI – deep learning, natural language processing, image recognition and neural-network driven decision-making – will help them to understand each other, and us.

    “In the early days you could do IoT in your home in a lot of different ways and there were a lot of wires and a lot of hard-code – mobile apps came later, but it was still an isolated experience that doesn’t really feel connected”, Greenstein tells me.

    “AI is helping to bridge that gap – now we are seeing automakers and hotels and other companies trying to create more integrated experiences and using AI to better understand and interact with people.”

    2) More CPU power will be spent at the edge
    Pushing processing power to the “edge” – the front-facing elements of the IoT such as cameras and sensors which traditionally passively collect data to be processed in the cloud – brings a number of benefits and opportunities. Movement towards greater exploitation of this technology is a key trend for 2018 too, says Greenstein.

    “Suddenly there are cameras that can not only see, they can understand the image, and microphones which can listen – that’s increasingly being pushed to the edge.”

    As well as ensuring only useful data is passed back to the cloud, edge computing can benefit other considerations such as privacy. Greenstein gives an example of a system in a home care setting, where cameras or microphones could be trained to look out for signs which could indicate a resident is in danger, without impinging their privacy.

    “In this scenario, you might use cameras to tell if someone is recovering well, if their gait is normal or they are walking a little slower than they should be. But also you can pick up sounds like breaking glass, things falling or water spilling. And because the processing is done at the edge, we maintain privacy because nothing is sent to the cloud unless something bad happens.”

    3) Blockchain adds immutability and integrity to IoT transactions
    Blockchain and the IoT in many ways seem built for each other. Blockchain – a distributed and encrypted digital ledger – is well suited for recording details of the millions of transactions which take place between IoT machines. It’s only recently that the idea of convergence between these technologies has been widely talked about, though. Greenstein tells me that though the partnerships are not yet public IBM is working in “multiple industries” with clients on bringing them together and hinted that more details are very likely to emerge in 2018.

    “What people missed about blockchain, because they were so focused on the financial side of things, which is the obvious use case,” he tells me, “is that all of this IoT data, particularly in supply chains or where things move between owners, requires all of that data to be stored in some kind of unchangeable record.”

    Much of the interaction on the IoT takes place between robots, often with little human oversight. Blockchain records offer security, as only those with the encryption keys can edit or amend the sections they are entitled to. In addition, copies of the record are split between multiple (often thousands) of physical locations, so no one party has centralized control to manipulate it.

    4) Massive growth of IoT in manufacturing and industries
    Augmentation is the keyword here – and the vision here is that smart, connected tech will continue to help humans in skilled and manual tasks. This will be done by giving them access to context-sensitive insights that answer specific questions about specific things at the right point in time.

    “There’s no question the industrial side of IoT is growing rapidly. [At first] everyone thought it was about the sensors – but we’re getting to the point where it’s the insights and interactions with people.

    “In a way, it’s kind of supercharging manufacturing operators and people who do maintenance on machines by providing real-time data and real-time insights.”

    [​IMG]
    MANDEL NGAN/AFP/Getty Images

    Fruits of this convergence can be seen moves towards “smart documentation” with huge numbers of technical manuals and procedure guides being ingested by AI engines in order to be able to provide real-time assistance. “So people ask a question – they don’t have to look through the manual anymore,” explains Greenstein. “They can ask their manual ‘is this the right setting for the tyre pressure’”.

    In 2018 we are likely to see this trend taken further with the inclusion of a greater number of external data sets into the mix. So in theory not only will your manual tell you the correct tyre pressure, it will make adjustments based on the weather or other operating conditions the machine will be facing at that moment.

    Greenstein tells me “So we combine the manual with live data and say ‘this is the right thing to do right now, in your situation’. This is going to be really cool in customer services, by the way, as well as manufacturing.”
     
  5. Dr. AMK

    Dr. AMK Living with Hope

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  6. Dr. AMK

    Dr. AMK Living with Hope

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    THE INTERNET OF THINGS: THE NEXT BIG GAME-CHANGER
    Arguably the greatest and most disruptive of current trends causing insurers to transform their distribution models is the Internet of Things (IoT)—which not only enables insurers to better understand their customers and improve their interactions with them, but also is driving the expansion of insurance beyond indemnification to real-time protection.

    [​IMG][​IMG]

    While much early attention was directed at vehicle telematics, in the past 12 months there has been a two- to three-fold increase in the number of IoT-related products, services and pilots focused on homes and buildings, health and fitness, and other wearables. Of the insurance executives we surveyed in Europe, North America, Asia Pacific and Latin American, 39 percent have already launched or are piloting connected home or connected building initiatives that use the Internet of Things, and 44 percent consider connected devices to be a driver of future insurance revenue growth.

    The IoT presents unprecedented opportunities for growth. It gives insurers the potential to move up the value chain, from providing only indemnification for a loss that has occurred, to a more proactive, positive role that includes continuously helping customers prevent the loss.

    Alex Koslowski, Head of Consumer Proposition at Royal London Group says, “We’re definitely excited about the potential of the IoT. Already, any smartphone user has got a motion sensor, GPS and a step counter with them at most times. At some point you will be able to create behavior profiles that are incredibly valuable when it comes to risk-pricing that particular person.”

    The advent of the IoT and the proliferation of ecosystems that transcend industry boundaries and facilitate end-to-end buying experiences for customers offer insurers many new opportunities for value-added engagement. These include a steady stream of novel benefits, bundled into “living services” that appeal to customers more than insurance on its own ever could.

    Although numerous organizations with strong brands have started to invest in the IoT, insurers face capability gaps that they will need to overcome to remain competitive. These gaps include:

    • Effective ecosystem orchestration and the seamless connection of all partners.
    • The ability to gain the necessary, actionable insight from a constant flow of IoT data.
    • The establishment and management of a connected insurance operating model.
    Insurers must have a connected insurance platform, digitized back-end and transactional systems, and advanced data/analytics and partnering capabilities if they are to see success. And as they move up the protection maturity curve, the more sophisticated, integrated and digitized their capabilities will need to be.
     
  7. Fishon

    Fishon I Will Close You

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    ^^^ The language he uses here is very obfuscating. So basically they want to monitor your every action (create behavioral profiles), then prevent you from doing certain actions or charge you more if you do them. Then they want to sell that information to further monetize the policy. 'Real time protection' and 'living services' my butt.
     
    Last edited: Jan 8, 2018
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  8. Dr. AMK

    Dr. AMK Living with Hope

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    This is the Digital Transformation all about, you saw nothing yet, they have a main goal to achieve, makes all our live digital to control every single movement even your heart beat. If your life and your money is digital, they can shut you down with not much efforts, even if you are a government, that's why we have an e-Government UN ranking and competition :). Please see the thread below:
    http://forum.notebookreview.com/thr...y-to-implant-micro-chips-in-employees.807293/
     
  9. Dr. AMK

    Dr. AMK Living with Hope

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  10. Dr. AMK

    Dr. AMK Living with Hope

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    How an IoT Gateway Device Works: Understanding the Architecture

    [This is the 2nd blog of our ‘IoT Gateway’ series. You can check-out part 1 hereWhat is an IoT Gateway Device] .

    In our quest to understand IoT Gateway devices better, we requested our IoT Software Developers to shed some light on the technology architecture of the IoT Gateway.

    Following are the excerpts from this conversation. If you are an IoT software or hardware developer or an IoT enthusiast, this blog can serve as a good starting point for understanding the various software/hardware modules of the IoT Gateway

    Understanding IoT Gateway Architecture – an overview
    Design of an IoT Gateway is driven by the ‘Custom Application’ [e.g – fleet management, asset tracking, industrial automation, connected car, infotainment & more]

    As an IoT developer, based on the requirement of the application one needs to calibrate the following:

    • IoT Sensors range
    • Power demands
    • Performance
    • Scalability and security

    In reference to the below IoT gateway architecture diagram, let us try to understand the various modules or building blocks of the IoT Gateway Device.


    [​IMG]

    IOT Gateway Architecture


    IoT Gateway Device Hardware
    IoT Gateway Hardware comprises of processor/microcontroller, IoT sensors, protection circuitry, connectivity modules (e.g Zigbee, Bluetooth, WiFi and more).

    Type of hardware (processor/microcontroller), processing speed and memory space is decided based on the Operating System of the IoT Gateway device.

    The end-user application also has a big say in the design of the IoT Hardware.

    A small to a medium scale application can run on a microcontroller; however if the gateway is expected to do complex operations a processor is needed.

    This will have a direct impact on the cost of the gateway device.

    As an IoT Development partner or vendor, one should always design hardware components by considering performance, cost and efficiency.

    Operating System
    Selection of the Operating system is also largely dependent on the IoT application.

    If the gateway is to be designed for a simple to medium scale application then a RTOS (Real Time Operating System) is used; however if the gateway has to perform considerably complex operations then Linux is preferred

    For the applications like Car HUD or Infotainment systems that require rich GUI then Android OS is the preferred choice.

    HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer)
    Hardware Abstraction Layer supports reusability and portability of the IoT software.

    This layer makes the software design independent of the underlying hardware platform. Hence it helps to reduce the time and cost required to port the developed software application into a different hardware platform (during migration from the existing platform or re-design of the product line).

    IoT Sensors Stack
    This layer basically consists of software stacks that serve as interfaces with IoT sensors modules.

    Specific stack(s) is/are integrated depending on the sensor interface the IoT Gateway has to support. Some of the populary integrated stacks are ZigBee, 6LoWPAN, EnOcean, BLE, Modbus, PROFIBUS and more.

    Device Management and Configuration
    An IoT gateway needs to interface with different types of Sensor devices and each sensor node (used for capturing distinct data) has different set of properties.

    IoT Gateway device is required to keep track of all the connected devices/sensors.

    In addition to this, all the devices/sensors management and configuration tasks are performed at the IoT Gateway.

    Thus it is important that the IoT Gateway Device is easily configurable to manage IoT Sensor settings, properties and access control.

    The configuration and settings of all the IoT Sensor Devices is stored in the gateway device memory. This ensures that the last saved settings are available after every re-boot.

    Security
    Gateway security is one of the key considerations in IoT gateway architecture during the IoT Gateway design process.

    The designed IoT gateway should ensure robust data security, device security and network security.

    Device security and device identity is implemented in the gateway hardware using Crypto Authentication chips. To add further security to the IoT gateway hardware tampering is implemented.

    Secure boot is also implemented to ensure that the gateway doesn’t boot from an unauthorized firmware.

    All messages between gateway and cloud, and messages between Gateway sensor node is encrypted to ensure data integrity, and confidentiality of sensor nodes. Data to and from every node in a IoT application is encrypted to ensure network security.

    FOTA
    Ensuring IoT Gateway security requires continuous and timely efforts; as an IoT Development Partner, one needs to keep fixing the security loop holes fixed and maintain device integrity.

    Firmware Over The Air (FOTA) updates makes this possible! FOTA updates ensure that the IoT Gateway software is updated with latest versions of security patches, OS, Firewalls and more.

    Within the IoT network, the gateway device periodically checks for firmware updates in the cloud and fetches the update.

    In case of failure IoT Gateway reverts to the last best known state. Before the update process begins, IoT Gateway checks if the available firmware version is from a trusted source.

    Data Communication Protocols
    The IoT Gateway connects with the Cloud over Ethernet, Wi-Fi or a 4G/3G modem. Two way communication channel is established with the Cloud for data exchange and command(s) transfer.

    The underlying communication layer is UDP or TCP IP protocol.

    For ease of development and to maintain standardization, protocols like MQTT, CoAP, XMPP, AMQP are utilised. This is because handling and maintaining communication with cloud over raw socket is more complex process.

    Protocol(s) is/are selected considering the amount and frequency of the data that has to be shared with the Cloud.

    Data Management
    Data Management includes data streaming, data filtering and data storing (in case of loss of connectivity with the cloud).

    IoT Gateway manages the data from sensor nodes to gateway and also the data from gateway to cloud.

    The challenge here is to minimize the delay to ensure data fidelity.

    Cloud Connectivity Manager
    This layer is responsible for seamless connectivity with the cloud and also handles scenarios like reconnection, device state, heartbeat message, and gateway device authentication with the cloud.

    Custom Application
    IoT Gateway application is custom designed as per the business needs.

    Gateway application interacts with services and functions from all the other layers or modules to manage data between sensor node and gateway and from gateway to cloud in an efficient, secure and responsive manner.

    Gateway Data Transfer
    IoT gateway can be connected to the internet for data transfer using Ethernet, 4G/3G/GPRS modem or Wifi. Non-GPRS network is the most preferred mode of internet connectivity. This is due to the cost effectiveness of the data transfer through Wifi or Ethernet.

    The gateway should have in-built intelligence to analyze and decide which data should be transferred over the network for processing and which data can be cached for offline processing to save the data transfer cost and processing power of the main application.

    After understanding the architecture, one realizes that the Design and development of an IoT Gateway device is a work of art!

    As an IoT software and hardware developer, it is very important to understand the business needs (and logic) of the IoT Application.

    This understanding of the IoT Application is an important factor that contributes to the development of a win-win IoT Gateway design

    Though some very popular off-the shelf IoT Gateway solutions are available, but certain customization becomes a necessity to transform a product concept into business reality!
     

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