All about Astronomy Thread - Our Expanding Universe: Age, History & Other Facts

Discussion in 'Off Topic' started by Dr. AMK, Jul 27, 2017.

  1. Dr. AMK

    Dr. AMK The Strategist

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    Types of Alien Civilizations - Space Documentary 2018 HD

     
  2. Dr. AMK

    Dr. AMK The Strategist

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    The Nearest Stars to Earth
    the-nearest-stars-to-earth_50d256046337b.jpg
     
  3. Dr. AMK

    Dr. AMK The Strategist

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    Why won't we see a full moon in February?
    http://www.pennlive.com/wildaboutpa/2018/02/why_wont_we_see_a_full_moon_in.html
    Updated Feb 21, 1:03 PM; Posted Feb 21, 1:00 PM
    There will be no full moon in February 2018.
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    February 2018 will pass without a full moon.

    We had a blue moon - a second full moon in a calendar month - on Wednesday, January 31. And, after a full moon on Friday, March 2, we will see the second blue moon of 2018 on Saturday, March 31.

    Having two blue moons in a year is an especially rare occurrence, based on calendar timing that requires a month to pass without any full moon, and for 2018 that month is February.

    Blue moons only happen about every 2.7 years, because the number of days in a lunation, which is the span from new moon to new moon, is 29.53 days, just a bit shorter than the 30 or 31 days in a calendar month - 28 days in February. A year's worth of lunations totals 354.36 days versus the 365.24 days in a calendar year, and that difference builds until there are 13 lunations in a year, producing what we call a blue moon.

    After March 31's blue moon, there won't be another blue moon until October 31, 2020.

    The blue moon in March will conclude a period of unusual lunar situations. The full moon on January 31 was a supermoon, the name we've recently started to apply to full moons that occur when the moon is at its closest point of its orbit to the Earth, which is known as the perigee.

    The proximity of the moon to the Earth makes the full moon look about 14 percent larger and 30 percent larger than it does at apogee, which is the farthest point in the moon's orbit around the Earth.

    The moon on January 31 was 223,068 miles from Earth, compared to the average distance of 238,855 miles, according to NASA.

    The super/blue moon of January 31 also was a moon in lunar eclipse, as the moon moved out of the sun's light and into the shadow of the Earth. With only the light reflected off Earth visible on the moon, the moon's surface took on a reddish-brown color.

    According to NASA predications, Earth will see 228 lunar eclipses during the 21st century. A total of 85 of them will be total lunar eclipses. All of North America will see a total lunar eclipse again on the night of January 20-21, 2019.


    No Full Moon in February 2018
    http://www.moongiant.com/moonphases/February/2018
    How is this possible? This last happened in 1999 and occurs about 4 times a century. February is the only month that this is possible because the lunar cycle is longer than the number of days in February. When this does occur January and March usually have 2 Full Moon as it does this year.
    No Moon Feb.JPG

    Moon Phases February 2018
    https://www.calendar-12.com/moon_calendar/2018/february
    Moon_Feb.JPG
     
    Last edited: Feb 22, 2018
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  4. Dr. AMK

    Dr. AMK The Strategist

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    Nebula clouds
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  5. Dr. AMK

    Dr. AMK The Strategist

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    Probing Our Dynamic Outer Solar System
     
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  6. Dr. AMK

    Dr. AMK The Strategist

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    Butterfly emerges from stellar demise in planetary nebula NGC 6302
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    This celestial object looks like a delicate butterfly. But it is far from serene.

    What resemble dainty butterfly wings are actually roiling cauldrons of gas heated to nearly 20 000 degrees Celsius. The gas is tearing across space at more than 950 000 kilometres per hour — fast enough to travel from Earth to the Moon in 24 minutes!

    A dying star that was once about five times the mass of the Sun is at the centre of this fury. It has ejected its envelope of gases and is now unleashing a stream of ultraviolet radiation that is making the cast-off material glow. This object is an example of a planetary nebula, so-named because many of them have a round appearance resembling that of a planet when viewed through a small telescope.

    The Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), a new camera aboard the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, snapped this image of the planetary nebula, catalogued as NGC 6302, but more popularly called the Bug Nebula or the Butterfly Nebula. WFC3 was installed by NASA astronauts in May 2009, during the Servicing Mission to upgrade and repair the 19-year-old Hubble.

    NGC 6302 lies within our Milky Way galaxy, roughly 3800 light-years away in the constellation of Scorpius. The glowing gas is the star's outer layers, expelled over about 2200 years. The "butterfly" stretches for more than two light-years, which is about half the distance from the Sun to the nearest star, Proxima Centauri.

    The central star itself cannot be seen, because it is hidden within a doughnut-shaped ring of dust, which appears as a dark band pinching the nebula in the centre. The thick dust belt constricts the star's outflow, creating the classic "bipolar" or hourglass shape displayed by some planetary nebulae.

    The star's surface temperature is estimated to be over 220 000 degrees Celsius, making it one of the hottest known stars in our galaxy. Spectroscopic observations made with ground-based telescopes show that the gas is roughly 20 000 degrees Celsius, which is unusually hot compared to a typical planetary nebula.

    The WFC3 image reveals a complex history of ejections from the star. The star first evolved into a huge red giant, with a diameter of about 1000 times that of our Sun. It then lost its extended outer layers. Some of this gas was cast off from its equator at a relatively slow speed, perhaps as low as 32 000 kilometres per hour, creating the doughnut-shaped ring. Other gas was ejected perpendicular to the ring at higher speeds, producing the elongated "wings" of the butterfly-shaped structure. Later, as the central star heated up, a much faster stellar wind, a stream of charged particles travelling at more than 3.2 million kilometres per hour, ploughed through the existing wing-shaped structure, further modifying its shape.

    The image also shows numerous finger-like projections pointing back to the star, which may mark denser blobs in the outflow that have resisted the pressure from the stellar wind.

    The nebula's reddish outer edges are largely due to light emitted by nitrogen, which marks the coolest gas visible in the picture. WFC3 is equipped with a wide variety of filters that isolate light emitted by various chemical elements, allowing astronomers to infer properties of the nebular gas, such as its temperature, density and composition.

    The white-coloured regions are areas where light is emitted by sulphur. These are regions where fast-moving gas overtakes and collides with slow-moving gas that left the star at an earlier time, producing shock waves in the gas (the bright white edges on the sides facing the central star). The white blob with the crisp edge at upper right is an example of one of those shock waves.

    NGC 6302 was imaged on 27 July 2009 with Hubble's Wide Field Camera 3 in ultraviolet and visible light. Filters that isolate emissions from oxygen, helium, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur from the planetary nebula were used to create this composite image.

    These Hubble observations of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 are part of the Hubble Servicing Mission 4 Early Release Observations.
     
  7. Dr. AMK

    Dr. AMK The Strategist

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    42 Facts About Space
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  8. Dr. AMK

    Dr. AMK The Strategist

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  9. Dr. AMK

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  10. Dr. AMK

    Dr. AMK The Strategist

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    • Orion Nebula in Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Sulfur Image Credit Copyright: César Blanco González
    • The Orion Nebula is among the most intensely studied celestial features.The nebula has revealed much about the process of how stars and planetary systems are formed from collapsing clouds of gas and dust.
    • Astronomers have directly observed protoplanetary disks, brown dwarfs, intense and turbulent motions of the gas, and the photo-ionizing effects of massive nearby stars in the nebula.
    tumblr_nxu3iw68Cp1r096l7o1_1280.jpg
     
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